Tackling NHS Winter Pressures in the Urgent and Emergency Care System

Explore how the NHS is working towards solutions in addressing unprecedented demand in urgent and emergency care

The 2017/18 NHS winter crisis has been one of the worst on record, with daily headlines emerging of the unprecedented pressures being faced by NHS Trusts seeking to meet patient demand. NHS figures have revealed that over 100,000 patients have had to wait in an ambulance for more than half an hour this winter and that A&E waiting times have now reached the worst levels on record.

For all Trusts and CCGs the long term solution to tackling winter demand and averting these struggles in the future lies in a fundamental rethink of how care is delivered and how all services can work towards increased productivity and efficiency to improve provision.

A Redesign of Health and Social Care

Across the NHS the move towards health and social care integration, community services and self-care will be critical in alleviating the pressure on A&E departments.

150 Urgent treatment centres have been rolled out already which will contribute to local 4 hour waiting targets. These GP-led services are already working to offer support for some of the most common reasons for A&E attendances.

The NHS’ Vanguards programme is also trialling a number of schemes seeking to implement new models of care which support successful health and social care integration. The development of community based schemes and the use of technology are becoming increasingly vital in preventing delayed discharges and unnecessary hospital admissions.

Improving Ambulance Service Provision

The effective deployment of ambulances is vital to any urgent and emergency care system and the roll out of the NHS’ new Ambulance Response Programme (ARP) with new response times will be key to improving performance. The NHS predicts this system will result in faster treatment for stroke and heart attack patients and will lead to a more immediate response for 750,000 callers annually. The core ambition is to improve operational efficiency, which means that Trusts will also need to address wider questions of staff deployment, handover procedures and the relationship of ambulance services with community providers.

Patient flow

Of course, there is still major work to be done in ensuring that A&E departments themselves are being run as efficiently as possible and a vital component of this is improving patient flow.

A&E departments must constantly assess how ambulance handovers are conducted, the role of clinicians in managing patient demand, how patients are screened and streamed on entry and how staff can be most effectively deployed if hospitals are to deliver the best outcomes for A&E patients next winter.

To explore solutions to addressing patient demand and supporting improved outcomes in A&E departments, join NHS England, The Care Quality Commission and The Royal College of Emergency Medicine at the Annual Urgent and Emergency Care Conference 2018 taking place on Tuesday 15th May 2018 in Central London.

Written by Callum Clark. This article originally appeared on Insidegovernment.co.uk  2018-03-08

A&E at Crisis Point: Experience a Simulation of a Day in A&E

We all know it’s important to raise awareness of the current issues in emergency care. But, there’s something of a dichotomy in the way we do so. While countless media headlines deplore the “NHS winter crisis” and puts the state of the NHS firmly in the public consciousness, they rarely do justice to the real problems frontline staff have to contend with. Where the mainstream media fall short, we need to not only keep the conversation going, but to ensure it remains relevant, practicable and impactful in the real world.

Introducing Crisis Point: A Day in A&E

This includes encouraging peripheral organisations in their attempts to add to the conversation. Specialist lawyers Bolt Burdon Kemp recently released a new interactive challenge titled “Crisis Point: A Day in A&E”. The project attempts to simulate life in A&E to highlight the immense pressures that emergency staff are under every day. You’re placed in a nondescript emergency department in the UK and asked to make the right patient care, staffing and triage decisions to keep the emergency department running smoothly. As you play, an ‘A&E status’ indicator (based on the OPEL system and the fated 4 hour government targets) tracks your progress.

Highlighting Issues in Emergency Care

The simulation touches on a fair few issues that emergency care staff would be intimately familiar with. We’ve highlighted a couple of them below:

A Dangerous Patient-to-Staff Ratio

report by the Kings Fund found data from NHS England suggested occupancy across England was at unmanageable levels the majority of the year. We know from experience that patient attendance at A&Es are increasing every year.

What is lacking, however, is the staff infrastructure to cope with this increased demand. A lack of qualified staff presents a dangerous situation within emergency care, where critical patients or conditions might be missed or neglected despite the efforts of over-stretched staff.

Hiring more people would be the obvious solution, but this is easier said than done. Any recruitment efforts would need to consider why staff are leaving just as much as it focuses on recruiting new candidates.

Ill-Conceived Government Targets

When first introduced in 2003, the four-hour government targets saw a dramatic, encouraging drop in patient wait times. In the present day, however, these targets have become less effective.

Out of 139 NHS England trusts, only 3 stayed within the 4-hour target for the whole of last year. When patients are reduced to a number on a flashing board, it can distract staff from what they were trained for: delivering excellent frontline care to critically ill or immensely worried patients.

We need an institutional rethink in our approach to patient care in emergency departments, while simultaneously ensuring crucial provisions and funding are made available earlier. As the 2017/18 NHS review of winter 2017/18 noted, “Funding for winter, though immensely helpful, arrived in late November making it harder for trusts to plan [ahead].”

Of course, no simulation can truly encapsulate the complex, varied and indelible issues that currently permeate life in emergency care. We need to take a holistic approach to solving the “NHS crisis”, taking into account every single touchpoint within every department. The Urgent and Emergency Care Conference 2019, held in London on 2 July 2019, aims to provide a platform to do just that. We invite NHS providers, emergency care staff and other healthcare professionals within (and outside of) emergency care to come together to explore all those issues in detail. Book your place here: https://erc.pmgltd.co.uk/Store/Register/2685.

This blog was written by Hasna Haidar, a freelance copywriter, covering topics in education, health and technology. All insights for this campaign are coming from A&E staff members working in London and the UK, which have agreed to contribute anonymously with insights based on their experience.

This article originally appeared on Insidegovernment.co.uk 

Pressures on Urgent and Emergency Care: Has Anything Changed?

Last month NHS England announced plans for an overhaul of A&E targets. With four-hour performance goals becoming harder and harder to achieve, NHS bosses claim that these targets are becoming outdated. The goal of seeing 95% of patients within four hours hasn’t been met nationally since 2015 with only two hospitals hitting it in February 2019. These new plans would prioritise the most critical patients for quick treatment and aim to drop targets of seeing and treating almost all A&E patients within four hours.

These new plans will be piloted this year and could be introduced more widely across the NHS in 2020. The new targets could include ensuring patients with heart attacks, sepsis, acute asthma and strokes are cared for within an hour.

However, meeting four-hour performance goals is only one of an array of issues facing the urgent and emergency care sector. Year on year the challenges remain the same and A&E’s are often at crisis point when dealing with winter pressures. During our conference, we are aiming to address these problems and discuss practical insights and solutions for tackling the ongoing crisis faced by emergency services.

What are the problems?

The key problems faced by urgent and emergency care departments are all linked to growing patient demand. This has impacted patient flow, patient safety, effective discharge, response times and waiting times. Whilst patients often feel the impact of these increased pressures in the care they receive, NHS staff are also affected. So it is becoming more and more important to introduce strategies for maintaining a sustainable workforce.

How are we addressing these problems?

At the Urgent and Emergency Care Conference we will be hosting speakers and sessions to try and address the key issues being faced by the sector. Our sessions will focus on key themes and try to provide solutions to problems such as: creating a sustainable workforce, improving patient flow, relieving pressures on emergency departments and improving standards and quality of care.

Professor Stephen Powis the National Medical Director from NHS England will be outlining the long-term plan for urgent and emergency care. Patrick Mitchell from Health Education England will be speaking about ensuring a sustainable workforce. Dr Sally Johnson from Greenbrook Healthcare will be sharing how they have successfully relieved pressure on emergency departments through primary care led UCC’s. Professor Suzanne Mason from University of Sheffield will be discussing the new Ambulance Response Programme.

To hear from all these speakers and more about solutions to the ongoing issues being faced in urgent and emergency care book on to The Urgent and Emergency Care Conference 2019.

This article was written by Tatiana de Berg and originally appeared on Insidegovernment.co.uk 

Q&A with Dr Agnelo Fernandes MBE FRCGP, GP and Senior Partner at Parchmore Medical Centre

Dr Agnelo Fernandes delivered a case study session at the 2019 Urgent & Emergency Care Conference

Dr Agnelo shares his thoughts on managing workload and the key challenges facing urgent and emergency care services. He shares his experiences from working and managing a multi-award-winning GP Practice.

1. What do you think are the biggest challenges facing urgent and emergency care services?

It’s important to outline that from my experience the major challenge facing urgent and emergency care (UEC) services is not increased demand or acuity of the case mix, it is not even the elderly or funding. All of these are predictable, and can be planned for, however, are too easy to misreport or to form part of the narrative used to justify poor performance and poor patient experience in some UEC services. Strategic, operational and clinical leadership in some UEC services fail to be held to account where standards are consistently not met.

The biggest challenges facing UEC services in my view are the (a) workforce and (b) productivity.

(a) Workforce:

  • Enough staff may be available but choose not to work as permanent staff in the NHS.
  • The current NHS staffing system allows the workforce to choose not to prioritise their commitment to a publically funded NHS, but to perverse market incentives.
  • Those increasingly working as locums in UEC services can work a few days in a month and be paid the same amount as full time staff. The NHS is increasingly seen as a cash cow.
  • The NHS has become an employee based sellers’ market which is increasingly unaffordable.
  • The NHS staffing system has been allowed to be broken and must therefore change.
  • We need to make the NHS a permanent employer again

In order to change, there are two things that could be done centrally:

  1. Firstly, anyone qualifying to work as a locum or interim should also have to have a permanent job in any part of the NHS for at least two days a week and be able to regularly provide a confirmatory employers certificate to this effect, similar to the mandatory safeguarding or life support training evidence.
  2. Secondly, introducing pay ranges or bands for locum work reflecting experience making permanent work more attractive.

(b) Productivity:

  • Low clinician productivity is the second major challenge in some UEC services.
  • The lowest productivity often being in the most expensive parts of the UEC system which is not good value for the use of public funds.
  • There is either denial or a culture that fails to recognise this or the competencies to address.
  • Mitigating the risks of reducing the available locum or permanent workforce if they are challenged on performance in a sellers’ market requires strong strategic, operational and clinical leadership.

2. What top tips do you have for managing workload in the GP environment?

(a) Firstly some home truths to accept to get over the managing workload challenge:

  • Need strong and committed strategic, operational and clinical leadership for success
  • Leadership needs to promote the values of the organisation for excellent care
  • Staff need to be valued, and that working as a GP is a vocation not just a job.
  • Need a plan including that invest to save is often business efficient.
  • Accept that demand is predictable and that you need to map capacity to demand.
  • You will have a GP-light workforce given the unaffordable sellers’ market for GP’s
  • Recruit a different and varied workforce e.g. Pharmacists, Physicians Associates, Nurse Practitioners, Nurses, HCA’s, Medical Assistants with appropriate support structures
  • Map patient flows and avoid duplication of workforce utilisation, recognising where the unique abilities of GPs to manage risk are best placed, for safety, improving quality and continuity of care.
  • Recognise that workforce productivity needs to be optimised to make best use of resources
  • Understand the UEC services and pathways in your area and in your practice.
  • Self evident to reduce use of GP locums and escalating costs for sustainability.
  • To be financially viable to manage workload effectively that you make best use of resources.

(b) Doing things differently:

  • Workflow optimisation is key to reduce the administrative burden on clinicians with non-clinical workload being prioritised to appropriately trained and supported non-clinical staff.
  • Segment scheduled from same day urgent unscheduled work using workforce creatively.
  • Use a multidisciplinary team approach to deal with same day urgent care demand
  • Develop a responsive practice UEC system that can flex with demand on the telephone, online, face or home visit requests, capable of increasing capacity and productivity twice or three times that planned if required.
  • Create daily touch point for clinicians for referrals peer review, case discussion and peer support.
  • Use proactive approaches to keep people well and take ownership of their own health e.g. shared decision making with patients, promoting self care and self management, and group consultations.
  • Engage with your Patient Participation Group to support plans to manage workload
  • See people as part of communities and the need to mobilise the community to support individuals through social prescribing community activities.
  • Create staff opportunities for volunteering to cement the sense of community and the reason why they came to work in the caring professions

3. How do you think we can improve the recruitment and retention of GPs?

As a GP Senior Partner and a GP trainer I have a lot of experience in recruitment and retention. The recruitment of doctors needs to be reset:

  • We need caring, competent and confident doctors but also doctors that are committed to the NHS.
  • Being a doctor is a vocation not just a job, so it’s crucial that we are getting the right people. However, we need to be aware that the junior doctor contract has reinforced the employment as a job, eroding the concept of vocation even more.
  • Unfortunately there is the lure by the perverse incentives of the sellers’ market, for recent GP graduates to expect very high payments, for less work, and working only a few days a week as a locum, or even working a few hours from home for the same pay.
  • The NHS system has allowed these conditions of employment and perverse incentives and needs to change as discussed previously to incentivise permanent employment for even a minimum time period if that is a condition of being eligible to work as a locum, and with locum pay rates depending on experience.
  • With an ever increasing number different UEC services needing GP’s, candidates are spoilt for choice, and lucrative high paying services with less work advertised through social media, is beginning to have an effect.. This reduces the GP workforce that is available and affordable to GP practices and many UEC services.

We need to rebalance our approach to GP recruitment. Currently we have gone too far the other way, with a focus on the needs, and more often the wants of the individuals of the workforce, rather than the needs or requirements of the GP practices or the NHS:

  • There needs to be a change from a sellers’ market with hugely inflated and unaffordable costs to a realistic buyers’ market.
  • This is only possible through diversifying the workforce, reducing the need to employ a GP, and being prepared to not employ a GP or a GP locum just because they are available, but who have the wrong ethos or unrealistic expectations on pay and conditions.
  • GP’s will price themselves out of the employment market as the move to more cost effective workforce diversification reduces the needs to employ as many GPs, unless steps are taken to change the NHS system to mandate minimum permanent NHS working for eligibility to work as a locum and incentivise permanent employment by creating pay bands for locums based on experience.
  • Recruitment must be a continual exercise as there will always be a turnover of GPs due to circumstances beyond anyone’s control.GP practices and UEC services need to develop “herd immunity” to the inflated demands of GP locums or employed GPs propagated via WhatsApp or other social media being used as comparisons sites.
  • Otherwise whether in Primary Care Networks or not more GP practices will become financially and operationally unviable regardless of working at scale strategies resulting in more surgery closures.

We need to develop the right ethos for GP’s and other staff through work in the community:

  • Being involved in volunteering and community projects through GP practices or UEC services helps remind doctors and other staff why they came into the caring professions.
  • To support the NHS as a publically funded service for all, not just as a cash cow for the few.
  • The GP workforce needs to be valued, appropriately paid, supported and developed, to prevent burnout, and this means changing the working environment and creating variety and reducing the avoidable workload.
  • If you can get this right the best people will be satisfied, more fulfilled, stay and work longer, and more effectively with improved productivity.

Unfortunately the pensions issue, unless resolved will force many senior GPs out of the employment market which will create a vacuum, not only of experience, but also the available hands on deck to manage the workload. Hence a very different approach is required, while changing the sellers’ market to make the NHS more sustainable. With already increased resources to the NHS which are continually wasted, we need to avoid the creeping need for privatisation and marketization of the NHS to raise funding due to inflated costs created by the lucrative and flourishing sellers’ market available to the clinical workforce.

4. At Parchmore Medical Centre what is the key to delivering such effective care?

After losing baseline funding following contractual reviews, and losing disillusioned GP partners, there was a big motivation just to survive, continue and improve the work of the Medical Centre.

  • Due to the precarious financial situation GP Partners had to introduce tens of thousands of pounds of capital from their individual savings to maintain the practice and avoid staff redundancies.
  • It was important to reinforce some core values to all staff, including being sustainable, providing excellent care, being innovative, successful and being the family practice of choice.
  • In order to make Parchmore Medical Centre the family practice of choice there needed to be a personal element of care and continuity, which the use of locums prevented.
  • We involved our patient participation group, who led with mobilising the social prescribing revolution, with support from our local community, Counsellors and MP.
  • We had good strategic, operational and clinical leadership with distributive leadership to lead on specific elements of the practice rescue plan.
  • The key was accepting that we would have a GP-light permanent workforce.
  • There was also an increasingly available, but unaffordable GP locum workforce, which also set limits to what they would do, resulting in others in the practice having to pick up the extra work. Some available GPs, therefore, had priced themselves out of the sellers’ market as we decided not to employ them.

Diversifying the workforce from being a GP based system was a necessity. Reducing the administrative workload for the remaining GPs with workflow optimisation, was an early green shoot, that galvanised developing the other aspects of the recovery plan.

  • This led to the reduction of avoidable emergency admissions, reduction of unnecessary outpatient referrals, even reduction in A&E attendances, and creating longer appointments for those complex cases and improvements in the quality of care markers
  • The personal stake in the work meant doctors and staff were doing the best they could, and if you’re doing the right things then the money will follow, with the rewards of improving access, of managing the workload, improving the quality of care, a focus on prevention and keeping people well, and reducing the need for to use unaffordable GP locums..
  • Hospitals can create deficits due to overspends contributed to by the increasing staffing costs in a sellers’ market with eventual central bail out, however, GP practices do not have this luxury of being rewarded for failure – we just have to hand the contract back and close down, as we got so close to having to do as a practice.
  • In our case when the going got tough the tough got going to avoid practice closure.

5. What principles from your experience in general practice for managing workload could be applied to other UEC settings e.g. UTC, ED, IUC, Ambulance?

All the core ideas I mentioned previously can be applied to other UEC settings from A&E to IUC, and on the telephone, online or face to face.

  • This includes accepting that demand is predictable and matching capacity to demand while increasing productivity cost effectively – the core of sound operational management.
  • The cultural change needed with behaviours and beliefs among clinicians and all staff, that have become custom and practice leading to poor productivity, require strong strategic, operational and more importantly clinical leadership to change.
  • Diversifying the workforce is essential to deal with the lack of available GPs, A&E doctors, nursing and other clinicians.
  • Understanding the recruitment challenge with the current clinical workforce in a sellers’ market with inflating costs to NHS services.
  • Just trying to fill repeatedly vacant shifts makes no sense. Rather asking what could be done differently and by whom to manage the workload differently with better productivity and better outcomes with re-designed pathways, processes and patient flows.
  • What is wrong with seeing senior decision makers as leaders of multidisciplinary teams working together differently and performance managed to maximise productivity as a team?
  • Being able to see that there is a queue of waiting people, increasing productivity by all clinicians, and managing the workload by flexing to the demand for better clinical outcomes and certainly better patient experience with reduced unnecessary waiting.
  • Every organisation should have a realistic and sensible recruitment strategy to solve today’s workforce problems to increase their permanent staff and reduce use of increasingly costly often unreliable locum staff in the sellers’ market.
  • Use of digital and agile working needs to be explored, however, need to be ever mindful of the sellers’ market and escalating costs. Therefore the importance prioritising permanent staff to explore new ways of working rather than temporary staff.
  • Ensuring workflow optimisation, to remove the unnecessary administrative burden of clinicians creating more time to care.
  • Understanding what different UEC services are, and what they do to integrate flows, processes and pathways between services for fewer handoffs, to reduce waiting, and for improving patient experience while achieving the standards and targets expected

This article originally appeared on Insidegovernment.co.uk